Wahhabism

   Derived from the name of the 18th-century Arab Islamic reformer Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, Wahhabism (vakhabizm) is used as a generic term by the Russian government to describe radical Islamists. In the wake of the Soviet-Afghan War, some returning veterans of Muslim descent brought back the radical ideals of the Afghan mujahideen. In the early 1990s, Saudi and Egyptian missionaries further spread an austere interpretation of Islam that promotes the use of sharia (Islamic law) and is antithetical to Christianity and syncretic practices common among Muslims of the North Caucasus and the Volga-Ural region.
   In the wake of the first Chechen War, radical Islamism gained ground among impoverished Chechens, Ingush, and Dagestanis, prompting fears of wider conflict between Russia’s Orthodox populations and Caucasian Muslims (the doctrine had only limited appeal in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan). By the late 1990s, Shamil Basayev’s increasingly deadly attacks on civilians and his support for the establishment of a caliphate in the North Caucasus made Wahhabism one of the greatest threats to the security and territorial integrity of Russia. In an effort to defuse this threat, Moscow and regional authorities began a crackdown on Muslim organizations that espoused Wahhabism or that were supported from abroad. Within the Russian ummah or Muslim community, Wahhabism is controversial, with some clerics decrying the influence of Saudi, Pakistani, and other foreign religious authorities, while Moscow’s chief mufti, Ravil Gaynutdin, has expressed more openness toward such interpretations of Islam. In April 2009, Chechen president Ramzan Kadyrov declared that both terrorism and Wahhabism had been “defeated” in his republic.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Wahhabism — (Arabic: Al Wahhābīyya الوهابية) or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, an 18th century scholar from what is today known as Saudi Arabia, who advocated a return to the practices of… …   Wikipedia

  • wahhabism — wahhabísm s. n. Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic …   Dicționar Român

  • Wahhabism — noun a conservative and intolerant form of Islam that is practiced in Saudi Arabia Osama bin Laden and his followers practice Wahhabism • Syn: ↑Wahabism • Hypernyms: ↑Islam, ↑Islamism, ↑Mohammedanism, ↑Muhammadanism, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Wahhabism — noun see Wahhabi …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Wahhabism — /weuh hah biz euhm, wah /, n. the group of doctrines or practices of the Wahhabis. Also, Wahhabiism /weuh hah bee iz euhm, wah /, Wahabism. [1820 30; WAHHAB(I) + ISM] * * * …   Universalium

  • Wahhabism — noun a branch of Sunni Islam practised by those who follow the teachings of See Also: Wahhabite …   Wiktionary

  • wahhabism — wah·ha·bism …   English syllables

  • Wahhabi —    / Wahhabism    An Islamic sect named for Muhammad Abd al Wahhab, who was born at ‘ Uyaynah in central Arabia in 1703. His father was a local Islamic judge ( qadi ) and a follower of the Hanbali school of Islamic law. Wahhab became an Islamic… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Wahhabi — For the 18th century Saudi Arabian female military leader, see Ghaliyya al Wahhabiyya. Wahhabism is a religious movement[1] or a branch[2] of Islam. It was developed by an 18th century Muslim theologian (Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab) (1703–1792)… …   Wikipedia

  • Salafi — Sunni Islam Salafism is also used sometimes as a synonym of Wahhabism. A Salafi come from Sunni Islam (Arabic: سلفي‎) is a follower of an Islamic movement, Salafiyyah , that is supposed to take the Salaf who lived during the patristic period of… …   Wikipedia

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